One of the most important rules of Islam and a great pillar of its policy is that it does not force anyone to join it and does not force anyone out of it. Nonetheless, some talk about killing of apostate from Islam, however the apostate from Islam is not killed for converting from Islam, but for fighting against Muslims.
“Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors. Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] worship is [acknowledged to be] for Allah . But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors.” (AL-BAQARAH:190-193)
Islamic teachings focus on calling to join the way of God by wisdom and indulgent preaching, as well as argue offenders in the best manner, as Islam is based on a straight path to faith with the freedom of advocacy, away from sedition.
However, there are some who claim that Islam was spread by the way of the sword, but God said: “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed - all of them entirely. Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?” (YUNUS:99)
“And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allah and does righteousness and says, ‘Indeed, I am of the Muslims.’ And not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel [evil] by that [deed] which is better; and thereupon the one whom between you and him is enmity [will become] as though he was a devoted friend. But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except one having a great portion [of good].” (FUSSILAT:33-34-35)
The Prophet Mohamed had the right to be loyal to his religion and to God, but he also respected the right of his opponents to worship other than Allah. As God has ordered him to say: “Say, ‘ Allah [alone] do I worship, sincere to Him in my religion, So worship what you will besides Him.’ Say, ‘Indeed, the losers are the ones who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Unquestionably, that is the manifest loss.’” (AZ-ZUMAR:14-15)
And God ordered him to declare that he speaks the truth of God and say that people have the right to choose whether to believe or disbelieve, but they would have to bear the responsibility if they chose to disbelieve: “And say, ‘The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills - let him believe; and whoever wills - let him disbelieve.’ Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them. And if they call for relief, they will be relieved with water like murky oil, which scalds [their] faces. Wretched is the drink, and evil is the resting place.” (AL-KAHF:29)
“Say, ‘Believe in it or do not believe. Indeed, those who were given knowledge before it - when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration,’” (AL-ISRA:107)
At a time when the sacerdotal institutions refuse to hold a dialogue and are only content with issuing decisions of apostasy, atonement and deprivation against all those who disagree with their opinions, God holds a dialogue with his worshipers, the sons of Adam to convince them that he is the one God and has no partner.
God has decided to his worshipers to have freedom of thought, belief and opinion at a time when the sacerdotal institutions ask to stop and block thinking and confiscate the right to discuss their beliefs and ideas.
“O People of the Scripture, why do you argue about Abraham while the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed until after him? Then will you not reason? Here you are - those who have argued about that of which you have [some] knowledge, but why do you argue about that of which you have no knowledge? And Allah knows, while you know not.” (ALI 'IMRAN:65-66)
“Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.” (AN-NAHL:125)
Amnesty and forgiveness are values which the Koran focuses on and calls for, as human life is based on diversity and differences from human being to another, as such, Islam advocates for peaceful coexistence within the framework of tolerance and acceptance of others.
“And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah. Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know. How can there be for the polytheists a treaty in the sight of Allah and with His Messenger, except for those with whom you made a treaty at al-Masjid al-Haram? So as long as they are upright toward you, be upright toward them. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous [who fear Him].” (AT-TAWBAH:6-7)
As long as polytheist does not harm or hurt Muslims and is committed to stay in line with principles of coexistence, then it is forbidden by Islam to harm or frighten him, in an attempt to prevent any kind of sedition. Sedition is considered by the Koran as one of the most heinous crimes against mankind, as it usually led to bloodshed and the loss of countless lives, which is against the nature of Islam, as the Koran condemns all forms of aggression and oppression.
“They ask you about the sacred month - about fighting therein. Say, ‘Fighting therein is great [sin], but averting [people] from the way of Allah and disbelief in Him and [preventing access to] al-Masjid al-Haram and the expulsion of its people therefrom are greater [evil] in the sight of Allah. And fitnah is greater than killing.’ And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your religion if they are able. And whoever of you reverts from his religion [to disbelief] and dies while he is a disbeliever - for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter, and those are the companions of the Fire, they will abide therein eternally.” (AL-BAQARAH:217)
“It is He who has sent down to you, [O Muhammad], the Book; in it are verses [that are] precise - they are the foundation of the Book - and others unspecific. As for those in whose hearts is deviation [from truth], they will follow that of it which is unspecific, seeking discord and seeking an interpretation [suitable to them]. And no one knows its [true] interpretation except Allah. But those firm in knowledge say, "We believe in it. All [of it] is from our Lord." And no one will be reminded except those of understanding.” (ALI 'IMRAN:7)
All of these verses have ordered the Prophet Mohamed to leave those who refuse to believe in Allah or in Judgment Day to God, as God will not leave anyone of them without being judged on his or her actions, choices and believes. The holy Koran specifies the role of the Prophet Mohamed within a framework that focuses on advocacy and delivering the word of God. It also specifies the most suitable way for the Prophet Mohamed to perform his role.
“Not upon the Messenger is [responsibility] except [for] notification. And Allah knows whatever you reveal and whatever you conceal.” (AL-MA'IDAH:99)
“And if you [people] deny [the message] - already nations before you have denied. And there is not upon the Messenger except [the duty of] clear notification.” (AL-'ANKABUT:18)